Impact & Savings – Prisons

up to 56%

Reduction of Recidivism

for Committing New Crimes

When Released,

After Introducing the

Transcendental Meditation Programme

up to 45%

Reduction of Recidivism

for Parole Violations or Any Other Reason

When Released,

After Introducing the

Transcendental Meditation Programme

.

.

up to 56%

Reduction of Recidivism

for Committing New Crimes

When Released,

After Introducing the

Transcendental Meditation

Programme

up to 45%

Reduction of Recidivism

for Parole Violations

 or Any Other Reason

When Released,

After Introducing the

Transcendental Meditation

Programme

… Diving Easily Deep Within

…To Reduce Recidivism

 

“Usually I look at myself at the mirror and I see only my reflection

… while since I started meditating I can see even beyond the image… I can see deep inside myself, what I have inside

… think more about things and also be more rational about the things”

 – Inmate, long-sentence prison, Italy –

… Diving Easily

Deep Within

…To Reduce Recidivism

 

“Usually I look at myself at the mirror and I see only my reflection

… while since I started meditating I can see even beyond the image… I can see deep inside myself, what I have inside

… think more about things and also be more rational about the things”

 – Inmate, long-sentence prison, Italy –

 The cost of the prison sector for society

.

Offenders have a variety of problems or needs that interfere with them leading a prosocial lifestyle. They may be unemployed, dependent on drugs, suffer from mental illness or have poor self-esteem. The list of difficulties can be extensive, especially for high-risk offenders.

Providing treatment services to offenders can be costly. For example, according to the Eurostat report of February 2020,  government expenditure on public order and safety comprising ‘police services’, ‘fire protection services’, ‘law courts’, ‘prisons’, ‘research and development related to public order and safety’ as well as expenditure not elsewhere classified, stood in 2018 at 1.7% of the total GDP of the EU , corresponding to 229.8 billion euro, while the cost of only the prison sector stood in 2018 at 0.2% of the total GDP of the EU, corresponding to 27 billion euro.

Although the financial costs are significant, the research also shows that properly designed and delivered programs can reduce offender recidivism thereby increasing public safety. However, it is very important that these programs specifically target those offender needs that have the greatest impact on altering their criminal behaviour. 

Causes of recidivism

There is no single cause for why

individuals return to a life of crime

following imprisonment.

However, some risk factors for recidivism

include the following:

  • Mental issues, including depression
  • Antisocial attitudes, beliefs and values 
  • Antisocial behavior patterns
  • Antisocial peers and associates
  • Antisocial personality and temperamental factors
  • Family/marital stressors
  • Substance abuse
  • Lack of education, employment stability or achievement
  • Lack of pro-social activities in leisure time  

There is no single cause for why individuals return to a life of crime following imprisonment.

However, some risk factors for recidivism  include the following:

  • Mental issues, including depression
  • Antisocial attitudes, beliefs and values 
  • Antisocial behavior patterns
  • Antisocial peers and associates
  • Antisocial personality and temperamental factors
  • Family/marital stressors
  • Substance abuse
  • Lack of education, employment stability or achievement
  • Lack of pro-social activities in leisure time  

THE COST OF IMPRISONMENT

At the European level, imprisonment costed more than 26 billion Euro in 2018, according to the 43 prison administrations that provided data.

Addressing Risk Factors that bring to recidivism

 is key to reduce the probability that a person reoffend again after released,

and to facilitate offenders social reintegration

What is the contribution that the Transcendental Meditation Programme

can provide to prisons and governments around the world

in order to support them to reduce risk factors of recidivism

and reducing the costs associated with that, while impacting lives?

 

… Read more and discover!

What is the contribution that the Transcendental Meditation Programme can provide to prisons and governments around the world in order to support them to reduce risk factors of recidivism and reducing the costs associated with that, while impacting lives?

 

… Read more and discover!

Transcendental Meditation

addressing risk factors of recidivism and saving costs

Transcendental Meditation

addressing risk factors of recidivism

and saving costs

.

Based on results from studies at several maximum-security prisons, including Folsom and San Quentin in California and Walpole in Massachusetts, up to 56% fewer inmates are convicted of new crimes when they are released after beginning the Transcendental Meditation programme.

Furthermore, practitioners of this programme are returned to prison up to 45% less often for parole violations or any other reason.

 

Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36(1-4):319-331 – 
August 2003

What is the uniqueness

 of the Transcendental Meditation Programme?

The Uniqueness of this holistic approach involving both prison officers and inmates is that it addresses the root-cause of negative attitudes and violence by directly promoting the psycho-physiological well-being of all practitioners.

The Uniqueness of this holistic approach involving both prison officers and inmates is that it addresses the root-cause of negative attitudes and violence by directly promoting the psycho-physiological well-being of all practitioners.

Increase brain coherence through TM

A key feature of the effectiveness of the TM technique is that it has been found to develop greater integration of brain functioning, supporting clarity of mind and physiological balance. Increased integration of brain functioning is found during the practice, as measured by mathematical ‘coherence’ of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded at different locations on the scalp, and higher levels of EEG coherence are associated with higher levels of creativity, learning ability, and moral reasoning.

The success of the Transcendental Meditation Programme in addressing risk factors bringing to recidivism  has been evidenced by empirical studies worldwide.

Extensive scientific research, together with direct application in hundreds of schools, prisons, and military services worldwide, shows that the Transcendental Meditation programme unlocks the hidden reserves of the brain, improves mental health and promote mental well-being by decreasing stress and anxiety, reducing depression and burnout, decreasing impulsive tendency, reducing emotional instability, decreasing neurotic tendency. The result is decreased negative behaviors amongst diverse populations including inmates, at risk youth, students and minorities.

The success of the Transcendental Meditation Programme in addressing risk factors bringing to recidivism  has been evidenced by empirical studies worldwide.

Extensive scientific research, together with direct application in hundreds of schools, prisons, and military services worldwide, shows that the Transcendental Meditation programme unlocks the hidden reserves of the brain, improves mental health and promote mental well-being by decreasing stress and anxiety, reducing depression and burnout, decreasing impulsive tendency, reducing emotional instability, decreasing neurotic tendency. The result is decreased negative behaviors amongst diverse populations including inmates, at risk youth, students and minorities.

Extensive Body of Research shows TM to be effective for the development of:

  • Mental Health & Well-Being
  • Personality Integration
  • Moral Reasoning
  • Positive Social Behavior
  • Reduced Recidivism
  • Reduced PTSD Symptoms
  • Increased Brain Functioning and Cognitive Performance
  • Increased Emotional Balance

Extensive Body of Research shows TM to be effective for the development of:

  • Mental Health & Well-Being
  • Personality Integration
  • Moral Reasoning
  • Positive Social Behavior
  • Reduced Recidivism
  • Reduced PTSD Symptoms
  • Increased Brain Functioning and Cognitive Performance
  • Increased Emotional Balance

Scientific findings on the benefits of TM

that bring to a reduction of risk factors associated with recidivism indicate:

  • Decrease Negativity, Irritability, Violence & Aggression among Prisoners
  • Decrease State and Trait Anxiety, Fear (Paranoia) among Prisoners
  • Decrease Depression among Prisoners
  • Decrease Drug Abuse of Prisoners
  • Decrease Prison Rule Infractions
  • Decrease Verbal Hostility among Prisoners
  • Decrease Sleep Disturbance among Prisoners
  • Reduce Recidivism
  • Reduce costs associated with recidivism, medical expenses, prison environment, quality of life for staff, crime rate for society
  • Decrease Social Introversion among Prisoners
  • Decrease Psychasthenia among Prisoners
  • Decrease Psychopathic Deviation among Prisoners
  • Decrease Schizophrenia among Prisoners
  • Increase Social Responsibility among Prisoners
  • Increase Self-Esteem among Prisoners
  • Increase Work Efficiency among Prisoners
  • Explore Here Scientific Researches

Scientific findings on the benefits of TM that bring to a reduction of risk factors associated with recidivism indicate:

  • Decrease Negativity, Irritability, Violence & Aggression among Prisoners
  • Decrease State and Trait Anxiety, Fear (Paranoia) among Prisoners
  • Decrease Depression among Prisoners
  • Decrease Drug Abuse of Prisoners
  • Decrease Prison Rule Infractions
  • Decrease Verbal Hostility among Prisoners
  • Decrease Sleep Disturbance among Prisoners
  • Reduce Recidivism
  • Reduce costs associated with recidivism, medical expenses, prison environment, quality of life for staff, crime rate for society
  • Decrease Social Introversion among Prisoners
  • Decrease Psychasthenia among Prisoners
  • Decrease Psychopathic Deviation among Prisoners
  • Decrease Schizophrenia among Prisoners
  • Increase Social Responsibility among Prisoners
  • Increase Self-Esteem among Prisoners
  • Increase Work Efficiency among Prisoners
  • Explore Here Scientific Researches

Scientific Literature on TM in Prisons

The majority of the 40 publications on the benefits of TM for inmates and prison officers are reporting on studies in the US, some in Africa, Latin America and Europe. 18 of those publications are journal articles in the following scientific journals:

Explore Research Evidence

Journal papers:

  • Criminal Justice and Behavior
  • Criminal Law Journal
  • International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice
  • Journal of Criminal Justice
  • Journal of Offender Rehabilitation
  • Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
  • Journal of Social Behavior and Personality
  • Kentucky Law Journal

Then there are a number of conference papers; two doctoral theses, including one from Harvard University; a number of institutional papers, and a book chapter. 

 

TM in prisons implemented in Europe

In Europe, the Transcendental Meditation programme in the prison environment has been implemented through an EU co-funded Erasmus+ projects, the FRIENDS project, in a prison for long-sentence in the north of Italy.

The FRIENDS project has demonstrated that TM provides outcomes promoting emotional and psychological well-being for inmates and prison officers addressing risk factors for recidivism. These outcomes include:

Emotional

well-being

Life satisfaction

Positive affects

Stress

Anxiety

(State & Trait)

Depression

Negative affects

This research showed that QT/TM intervention is a promising and straightforward instrument to be used in prison in order to relieve stress, anxiety and depression and to improve emotional well-being in inmates and prison officers.

The FRIENDS project has demonstrated that TM provides outcomes promoting emotional and psychological well-being for inmates and prison officers addressing risk factors for recidivism. These outcomes include:

Emotional

well-being

Life satisfaction

Positive affects

Stress

Anxiety

(State & Trait)

Depression

Negative affects

This research showed that QT/TM intervention is a promising and straightforward instrument to be used in prison in order to relieve stress, anxiety and depression and to improve emotional well-being in inmates and prison officers.

The FRIENDS project has demonstrated that TM provides outcomes promoting emotional and psychological well-being for inmates and prison officers addressing risk factors for recidivism. These outcomes include:

Emotional

well-being

Life satisfaction

Positive affects

Stress

Anxiety

(State & Trait)

Depression

Negative affects

This research showed that QT/TM intervention is a promising and straightforward instrument to be used in prison in order to relieve stress, anxiety and depression and to improve emotional well-being in inmates and prison officers.

Read Results

A randomized controlled trial of 181 male Oregon state correctional inmates found that the Transcendental Meditation programme significantly decreased the different dimensions of trauma: anxiety (-48%), depression (-46%), dissociation (-48%), and sleep disturbances (-43%). All reductions were significantly significant (p’s < .001. ES d .50 to .63).

Read Results

More than half of violent crimes are committed under the influence of alcohol, so this study on reduced alcohol use disorder is highly relevant to social behavior. This study was on people with a serious alcohol use disorder, who were undergoing treatment in a rehabilitation facility. The finding showed that adding TM to the other treatments greatly enhanced the effectiveness of the programme. Follow-up after discharge at 90 days found that drinking was markedly reduced in those who usually practiced TM twice and that none of the people who practiced TM twice a day returned to heavy drinking. 60 patients randomly assigned to TAU or TAU plus TM.

Decreased PTSD in Female Prison Inmates

Read Results

181 Oregon state correctional inmates with a moderate to high-risk criminal profile were randomly assigned to either the TM programme or to a usual care control group. The TM group showed a reduction of perceived stress and trauma symptoms

.

Dominica offers TM to prison inmates

The Minister of Health of Dominica presenting the certificate of completion of the Transcendental Meditation course to the inmates. The Minister was very enthusiastic about the outcomes of the programme.

.

The Transcendental Meditation Programme in the Senegalese Penitentiary System

“We noticed that no inmate who participated in this programme has come back to prison!”

Director, Thies prison.

In Senegal more than 11.000 inmates and 900 prison officers were trained in the Transcendental Meditation technique in the course of a Governmental programme that involved altogether 31 of the 34 prisons in the whole country, between 1987 and 1989

The 31 prisons participating in the programme overall reported a drop of recidivism rate from 90% in the pre-meditation period to less than 3% after the programme was established. Rule infractions decreased, medical expenses went down 70%.

Prisons officers practicing Transcendental Meditation together

Director of penal prison in Dakar leading a TM group meditation with his inmates

.

“It is the most effective method of rehabilitation that I know of. I have spent my entire life in the field of corrections. Months have passed by without so much as a quarrel in the prison. It’s incredible.”

Director, Saint Louis prison

Effective Rehabilitation

Through TM  

Transcendental Meditation addresses the root-cause of negative attitudes and violence by directly promoting the psycho-physiological well-being of all practitioners and promotes a reduction of recidivism.

Discover scientific researches and field experiences of prisons who introduced TM. →

The Transcendental Meditation Programme promotes physical and mental well-being of inmates, improves the quality of life for prison officers and creates a more manageable prison environment.

It promotes a reduction of recidivism and the costs associated to that!

Extensive Scientific Research over the past 40 years Validating the Benefits of TM have verified the profound impact of the technique in addressing risk factors for recidivism including:

The Transcendental Meditation Programme promotes physical and mental well-being of inmates, improves the quality of life for prison officers and creates a more manageable prison environment.

It promotes a reduction of recidivism and the costs associated to that!

Extensive Scientific Research over the past 40 years Validating the Benefits of TM have verified the profound impact of the technique in addressing risk factors for recidivism including:

Promoting Better Social & Interpersonal Relationships

Decreased: 

  • Recidivism
  • Antisocial behaviors (e.g. impulsiveness)
  • Negativity, Irritability
    and Aggressiveness of Inmates
  • Substance abuse
  • Depression and Anxiety
  • Rigid or Obsessive
    Thoughts and Compulsive
    Behavior (Decreased
    Psychasthenia) among Prisoners
  • Social Introversion
    among Prisoners

Decreased: 

  • Tension
  • Neuroticism
  • Irritability
  • Cessation of Fights Between Inmates
  • Verbal Hostility and Aggression
  • Rule Violations by
    Inmates and Staff
  • Antisocial personality/negative emotionality
  • Antisocial attitudes and cognitions
  • Less Sensitivity to Criticism
  • Decreased fear of being humiliated

Increased: 

  • Moral reasoning and empathy
  • Sense of citizenship
  • Personal Integration
  • Emotional stability/ mental health
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Self-realization
  • Good humor
  • Trust
  • Tolerance and inclusion
  • Greater Capacity for Warm Interpersonal Relationships
    among Prisoners

Increased:

  • Moral Judgment
  • Sociability & social maturity
  • Higher Level of Family Health
  • Greater Satisfaction with Marriage
  • Increased Sensitivity to the feelings of others
  • Improved interpersonal behavior of juvenile offenders
  • Orientation towards Positive Values

Reducing Substance Abuse

Substance abuse is one of the causes leading to crime and a main risk factor for recidivism. 

A number of papers indicate that individuals who learn the TM programme show a significantly greater reduction in use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes than do individuals who participate in programmes of relaxation, prevention, or treatment.

The results of a meta-analysis show “that abstinence from illegal drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes is maintained or even increased over a long period of time among those who participated in the Transcendental Meditation programme, in contrast to high relapse rates for standard treatment programmes. 

The meta-analysis also indicates that individuals with substance abuse problems who learned the Transcendental Meditation programme showed significantly improved psychological health in comparison to controls.”

Alexander, C. N.; Robinson, P.; and Rainforth, M. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 13–87, 1994.

Promoting Better Health for Prison Staff

 

Decreased:

 

  • Burnout – Emotional exhaustion
  • Stress and anxiety in prison officers
  • Worksite Stress
  • Fatigue
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Substance abuse

Increased:

  • Emotional well-being in prison officers
  • Life satisfaction in prison officers
  • General job satisfaction
  • Physical and mental well-being
  • Intelligence and creativity
  • Greater concern for inmates among prison staff
  • Increased efficiency and productivity
  • Improved problem-solving ability
  • Leadership development and self-development

Increased:

  • Improved physiological stability during task performance
  • Improved work and personal relationships
  • Increased self-confidence and self-actualization
  • Improved verbal and analytical thinking, synthetic and holistic Thinking
  • Environmental mastery

Promoting Mental Health & Well-being In Prison

Many studies, including in prisons, has verified the benefits of TM for improving physical and mental health. Benefits include: 

Increased:

  • Emotional well-being in inmates and prison officers
  • Resilience
  • Better physical and mental health and well-being
  • Improvement in sleep in inmates
  • Higher Personal Development among Prisoners
  • Purpose in life
  • Self-acceptance
  • Self-actualization: increased integration, unity, and wholeness of personality
  • Intrinsic motivation
  • Emotional balance
  • Autonomy
  • Subjective vitality
  • Energy and Enthusiasm
  • Confidence and Joyfulness among Inmates
  • Mind and body coordination
  • Higher Levels of Self Development
  • Enhanced self-regard and self-esteem
  • Enhanced inner well-being
  • Better coping ability

Better women health

  • Reduced fatigue and emotional stress that may trigger menopausal symptoms.
  • Fewer mood-swings and increased emotional strength, happiness, and self-sufficiency.
  • Less stress and anxiety during pregnancy

Reduced:

  • Depression in inmates
  • Anxiety (state and trait) and stress in inmates
  • Symptoms of PTSD
  • Drug Consumption among Inmates
  • Use of Cigarettes, Alcohol, Drugs
  • Psychopathic Deviation among Prisoners
  • Fear (Paranoia) among Prisoners
  • Somatization
  • Tension
  • Emotional problems
  • Fatigue
  • Insomnia
  • Reduced cardiovascular mortality
  • Reduction of High Blood Pressure in Adolescents and Adults
  • Decrease in the Number of Medical Consultations by Inmates

Increasing Education Attainments - Supporting Skills Development

 

Improved:

  • Motivation to learn
  • Creativity, innovation, intelligence and brain integration
  • Work efficiency among prisoners
  • Mathematics and language skills
  • Improved academic outcomes for all, including those from disadvantaged backgrounds
  • Coherence of brain functioning
  • Intelligence and mental ability
  • Memory
  • Efficiency of concept learning
  • Focused attention
  • Field independence
  • Cognitive flexibility
  • Developing entrepreneurial mindsets and promoting entrepreneurship education
  • It contributes to resistance to environmental stress of all types contributing to more effective learning in the classroom and improved academic achievement.
  • Motivation to learn
  • Self-esteem
  • Overall student well-being
  • Less fear and anxiety of performing in public

Reducing Medical Expenses For The Prison Sector

Transcendental Meditation has the potential to be an effective instrument for reducing medical expenses for the prison sector, including medical care, psychiatric services, pharmaceuticals, women health, and an effective instrument in support of rehabilitation programmes including substance abuse programmes, educational and vocational training programmes, etc:

  • Decrease in the Number of Medical Consultations by Inmates
  • Longitudinal Reduction in Health Care Costs
  • Significantly Fewer Hospital Inpatient Days, and Outpatient Visits in All Age Categories – Fewer Inpatient Admissions for All Major Categories of Disease

Psychosomatic Medicine 49: 493–507, 1987

Promoting Better Social & Interpersonal Relationships

Decreased: 

  • Recidivism
  • Antisocial behaviors (e.g. impulsiveness)
  • Negativity, Irritability
    and Aggressiveness of Inmates
  • Substance abuse
  • Depression and Anxiety
  • Rigid or Obsessive
    Thoughts and Compulsive
    Behavior (Decreased
    Psychasthenia) among Prisoners
  • Social Introversion
    among Prisoners
  • Tension
  • Neuroticism
  • Irritability
  • Cessation of Fights Between Inmates
  • Verbal Hostility and Aggression
  • Rule Violations by
    Inmates and Staff
  • Antisocial personality/negative emotionality
  • Antisocial attitudes and cognitions
  • Less Sensitivity to Criticism
  • Decreased fear of being humiliated

Increased: 

  • Moral reasoning and empathy
  • Sense of citizenship
  • Personal Integration
  • Emotional stability/ mental health
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Self-realization
  • Good humor
  • Trust
  • Tolerance and inclusion
  • Greater Capacity for Warm Interpersonal Relationships
    among Prisoners
  • Moral Judgment
  • Sociability & social maturity
  • Higher Level of Family Health
  • Greater Satisfaction with Marriage
  • Increased Sensitivity to the feelings of others
  • Improved interpersonal behavior of juvenile offenders
  • Orientation towards Positive Values

Reducing Substance Abuse

Substance abuse is one of the causes leading to crime and a main risk factor for recidivism. 

A number of papers indicate that individuals who learn the TM programme show a significantly greater reduction in use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes than do individuals who participate in programmes of relaxation, prevention, or treatment.

The results of a meta-analysis show “that abstinence from illegal drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes is maintained or even increased over a long period of time among those who participated in the Transcendental Meditation programme, in contrast to high relapse rates for standard treatment programmes. 

The meta-analysis also indicates that individuals with substance abuse problems who learned the Transcendental Meditation programme showed significantly improved psychological health in comparison to controls.”

Alexander, C. N.; Robinson, P.; and Rainforth, M. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 13–87, 1994.

Promoting Better Health for Prison Staff

 

Decreased:

 

  • Burnout – Emotional exhaustion
  • Stress and anxiety in prison officers
  • Worksite Stress
  • Fatigue
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Substance abuse

Increased:

  • Emotional well-being in prison officers
  • Life satisfaction in prison officers
  • General job satisfaction
  • Physical and mental well-being
  • Intelligence and creativity
  • Greater concern for inmates among prison staff
  • Increased efficiency and productivity
  • Improved problem-solving ability
  • Leadership development and self-development
  • Improved physiological stability during task performance
  • Improved work and personal relationships
  • Increased self-confidence and self-actualization
  • Improved verbal and analytical thinking, synthetic and holistic Thinking
  • Environmental mastery

Promoting Mental Health & Well-being In Prison

Many studies, including in prisons, has verified the benefits of TM for improving physical and mental health. Benefits include: 

Increased:

  • Emotional well-being in inmates and prison officers
  • Resilience
  • Better physical and mental health and well-being
  • Improvement in sleep in inmates
  • Higher Personal Development among Prisoners
  • Purpose in life
  • Self-acceptance
  • Self-actualization: increased integration, unity, and wholeness of personality
  • Intrinsic motivation
  • Emotional balance
  • Autonomy
  • Subjective vitality
  • Energy and Enthusiasm
  • Confidence and Joyfulness among Inmates
  • Mind and body coordination
  • Higher Levels of Self Development
  • Enhanced self-regard and self-esteem
  • Enhanced inner well-being
  • Better coping ability

Better women health

  • Reduced fatigue and emotional stress that may trigger menopausal symptoms.
  • Fewer mood-swings and increased emotional strength, happiness, and self-sufficiency.
  • Less stress and anxiety during pregnancy

Reduced:

  • Depression in inmates
  • Anxiety (state and trait) and stress in inmates
  • Symptoms of PTSD
  • Drug Consumption among Inmates
  • Use of Cigarettes, Alcohol, Drugs
  • Psychopathic Deviation among Prisoners
  • Fear (Paranoia) among Prisoners
  • Somatization
  • Tension
  • Emotional problems
  • Fatigue
  • Insomnia
  • Reduced cardiovascular mortality
  • Reduction of High Blood Pressure in Adolescents and Adults
  • Decrease in the Number of Medical Consultations by Inmates

Increasing Education Attainments - Supporting Skills Development

 

Improved:

  • Motivation to learn
  • Creativity, innovation, intelligence and brain integration
  • Work efficiency among prisoners
  • Mathematics and language skills
  • Improved academic outcomes for all, including those from disadvantaged backgrounds
  • Coherence of brain functioning
  • Intelligence and mental ability
  • Memory
  • Efficiency of concept learning
  • Focused attention
  • Field independence
  • Cognitive flexibility
  • Developing entrepreneurial mindsets and promoting entrepreneurship education
  • It contributes to resistance to environmental stress of all types contributing to more effective learning in the classroom and improved academic achievement.
  • Motivation to learn
  • Self-esteem
  • Overall student well-being
  • Less fear and anxiety of performing in public

Reducing Medical Expenses For The Prison Sector

Transcendental Meditation has the potential to be an effective instrument for reducing medical expenses for the prison sector, including medical care, psychiatric services, pharmaceuticals, women health, and an effective instrument in support of rehabilitation programmes including substance abuse programmes, educational and vocational training programmes, etc:

  • Decrease in the Number of Medical Consultations by Inmates
  • Longitudinal Reduction in Health Care Costs
  • Significantly Fewer Hospital Inpatient Days, and Outpatient Visits in All Age Categories – Fewer Inpatient Admissions for All Major Categories of Disease

Psychosomatic Medicine 49: 493–507, 1987

Support for Rehabilitation Programmes

Desistance” from crime refers to the process by which, with or without the intervention of criminal justice agencies, offenders terminate their offending activities and maintain crime-free lives. It is usually achieved over a period of time.

A number of factors are associated with desistance from crime. Examples of such factors are acquisition of new skills, full-time employment, significant life-partnership or starting a family (in particular for women)

Most offenders are confronted by a range of social, economic and personal challenges that tend to become obstacles to their social integration. Some of those challenges are a result of the offender’s social environment, family, peer group, substance abuse or low education and skill levels.

The Transcendental Meditation programme has the potential to be a very effective instrument in support to Institutional and community-based reintegration programmes, by addressing risk factors for recidivism and helping offenders face personal challenges, supporting them to see themselves in a new and more positive light with hope for the future and successfully reintegrate into the community.

TM in fact has shown to be effective for:

  • Promoting personal motivation
  • Increase learning abilities (and literacy/ numeracy) in support to development of skills
  • Improve creativity and innovation in support to employment
  • Promote better interpersonal relationships
  • Decrease dependence of drugs and alcohol
  • Improve mental health and cognitive behavior/functioning
  • Improve ability to plan
  • Reduce violence and impulsiveness

Support for Rehabilitation Programmes

Desistance” from crime refers to the process by which, with or without the intervention of criminal justice agencies, offenders terminate their offending activities and maintain crime-free lives. It is usually achieved over a period of time.

A number of factors are associated with desistance from crime. Examples of such factors are acquisition of new skills, full-time employment, significant life-partnership or starting a family (in particular for women)

Most offenders are confronted by a range of social, economic and personal challenges that tend to become obstacles to their social integration. Some of those challenges are a result of the offender’s social environment, family, peer group, substance abuse or low education and skill levels.

The Transcendental Meditation programme has the potential to be a very effective instrument in support to Institutional and community-based reintegration programmes, by addressing risk factors for recidivism and helping offenders face personal challenges, supporting them to see themselves in a new and more positive light with hope for the future and successfully reintegrate into the community.

TM in fact has shown to be effective for:

  • Promoting personal motivation
  • Increase learning abilities (and literacy/ numeracy) in support to development of skills
  • Improve creativity and innovation in support to employment
  • Promote better interpersonal relationships
  • Decrease dependence of drugs and alcohol
  • Improve mental health and cognitive behavior/functioning
  • Improve ability to plan
  • Reduce violence and impulsiveness

An estimate of Savings for Governments and Prisons

Through the Implementation of the

Transcendental Meditation Programme for Inmates and Staff

An estimate of Savings for Governments and Prisons Through the Implementation of the Transcendental Meditation Programme for Inmates and Staff

“Based on results from studies at several maximum-security prisons, including Folsom and San Quentin in California and Walpole in Massachusetts, up to 56% fewer inmates are convicted of new crimes when they are released after beginning the TM programme.

Furthermore, practitioners of this programme are returned to prison up to 45% less often for parole violations or any other reason.” 

Study by David Magill

August 2003 – Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36(1-4):319-331

Savings for a prison system as a result of teaching TM have two components: reduced costs while in prison and reduced costs associated with reincarceration:

  • (a) reduced recidivism
  • (b) reduced health care expenses while in prison
  • (c) a more manageable prison environment
  • (d) improved quality of life for inmates and staff
  • (e) reduced staff
  • (f) early release
  • (g) a reduced crime rate for society

These and other effects described in this paper allow the TM programme to be an effective instrument to lower costs for prisons and governments

Cost Savings from Teaching QT/TM in Prisons Expected to Arise From:

 

Training of inmates:

  • Reduced staffing costs
  • Reduced health care costs
  • Early Release
  • Reduced Reincarceration costs
  • Savings to expense ratio over a 5 years period is 4.7 to 1

Studies indicate that inmates practicing TM commit fewer infraction of rules and use more of their time in constructive activities (Bleick & Abrams, 1987; Ballou, 1993). Such change produce a calmer prison environment where fewer staff are needed

Training of correctional officers and staff:

  • Reduced stress
  • Reduced substance abuse
  • Reduced risk factor for disease & health problems
  • Reduced sick leave
  • Savings to expense ratio over a 5 years period is 3.9 to 1

Societal cost savings:

  • 5 years societal savings-to-cost ratio for the inmates who have learned TM and have been released is 8.5 to 1

Overall:

  • The estimated ratio of benefits to programme costs by introducing a programme to instruct 1000 inmates and 100 correctional officer in the TM technique is 10 to 1
  • 46% cost savings directly by the correctional system
  • 54% cost savings the general public

TOTAL SAVINGS FOR THE PRISON SECTOR  THROUGH TM

 

Total savings over 5 years for every 1,000 inmates and 100 correctional officers instructed is estimated at $31.6 million (combining in-prison savings by teaching inmates and correctional officers with societal savings, which includes the savings from reduction of recidivism).

TOTAL SAVINGS FOR THE PRISON SECTOR  THROUGH TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION

 

Total savings over 5 years for every 1,000 inmates and 100 correctional officers instructed is estimated at $31.6 million (combining in-prison savings by teaching inmates and correctional officers with societal savings, which includes the savings from reduction of recidivism).

Conservatively, the overall ratio of programme cost to total savings is estimated, in the Magill paper, at 1 to 10, with 46% of savings accruing to the correctional system and 54% to the general public.

Given that the basis for the cost savings (e.g. reduction in anxiety, depression, recidivism, etc.) is the same in the US as in Europe, these projections imply that instructing a substantial fraction of the 1.4 million people under correctional supervision in the European Union would lead to savings of billions of euros.

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Worth a Thousand Words …

Experiences of inmates practicing Transcendental Meditation in a prison for long sentences in Italy

Freedom Behind Bars: TM transforming the lives of inmates, guards, and staff of a medium-security prison in Oregon

Can Transcendental Meditation Fix our Prison System?

Interview: Doctor suggests Transcendental Meditation for prisoners

TM in Prison – Interview of Senior Prison Researcher at Oregon State Department of Corrections

Dominica Prison takes up Transcendental Meditation

Worth a Thousand Words …

Experiences of inmates practicing Transcendental Meditation in a prison for long sentences in Italy

Freedom Behind Bars: TM transforming the lives of inmates, guards, and staff of a medium-security prison in Oregon

Can Transcendental Meditation Fix our Prison System?

Interview: Doctor suggests Transcendental Meditation for prisoners

TM in Prison – Interview of Senior Prison Researcher at Oregon State Department of Corrections

Dominica Prison takes up Transcendental Meditation

More than 650 scientific research

conducted at over

250 universities and research

institutes in 33 countries

More than 650 scientific research conducted at over 250 universities and research institutes in 33 countries

Researches on the benefits of Quiet Time/TM

programme for the prison sector

Researches on the benefits of

Quiet Time/TM programme

 for the prison sector

More resources on

Transcendental Meditation

More resources on

Transcendental

Meditation

EUROPE Project

Meditação Transcendental Portugal

TM UK

Meditazione Trascendentale Italia

TM Belgium

David Lynch Foundation

tm.org

Center for Wellness and Achievement in Education (CWAE) 

TM for Women